Related Links

FHISO Bibliography


Maygene F. Daniels, “Introduction to Archival Terminology”, Archives Library Information Center (ALIC) ( – Small glossary of archival terms.

Describing Archives: A Content standard, 2nd ed. Chicago: Society of American Archivists (SAA), 2013 ( – Officially adopted as a standard by the Council of the Society of American Archivists in January 2013.

Tony Proctor, “Ashes to Ashes, Artefacts to Bits”, Parallax View ( – Relationship of physical artefacts to digital images.

##Core Concepts##

Louis Kessler, “Genealogy Technology - Random Thoughts”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2014-08-13 ( – Discussion of some incorrect thinking going on in the technical genealogy world.

Louis Kessler, “What Should Genealogy Software Do - Really!”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-11-28 ( – Ideas about genealogy software.

Louis Kessler, “A Recipe for GEDCOM”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-08-03 ( – What’s needed in a new standard.

Louis Kessler, “Nine Necessities in a GEDCOM Replacement”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-06-05 ( – This was the paper submitted to FHISO as CFPS 78.

Louis Kessler, “Michael Hait’s Perfect Genealogy Software Program”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2012-10-22 ( – A discussion of various aspects of what genealogy software does and should do.

Louis Kessler, “Get the Core Right First”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2012-06-21 ( – Includes discussion about picking a new standard that is not complex.

Louis Kessler, “6 Bad Things About Today’s Genealogy Software”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-11-20 ( – This lists the essential things to consider .

Louis Kessler, “Build a BetterGEDCOM or learn GEDCOMBetter?”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-01-05 ( – Discusses that GEDOM isn’t that bad and could be the basis of a new standard.

Louis Kessler, “BetterGEDCOM”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog. 2010-12-07 ( – Ideas about building a new standard.

Tony Proctor, “Our Days of Future Passed — Part I, II, and III”, Parallax View (,, – Presentation of the philosophy behind the STEMMA data model, and how it embraces the main approaches to genealogy as well as micro-history.


Tony Proctor, “Do Genealogists Really Need a Database?”, Parallax View ( – The argument for in-memory indexing, loaded directly from source files, and the advantages for sharing and storage.


“Calendar (New Style) Act 1750”, Wikipedia ( – Introduction of the Gregorian calendar in Britain

“Calendar (New Style) Act 1750”, The National Archives of UK ( – Original Briish legislation for the introduction of the new calendar.

“Dual Dates” (aka “Double Dates”), Wikipedia ( – Summary of the worldwide changeover.

“Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF)”, Library of Congress ( - The extended and subsetted version of ISO 8601.

W3CDTF, W3C ( – The cut-down version of ISO 8601 used by W3C.

“List of Calendars”, Wikipedia ( – List of worldwide calendar systems.

David Ewing Duncan. The Calendar: The 5000 Year Struggle To Align The Clock and the Heavens, and What Happened To The Missing Ten Days. Fourth Estate; New Ed edition. 8 April 2011 – Discussion of world calendars and the problems finding some synchronisation between them.

The Calendar FAQ ( – Common questions about calendars.

Louis Kessler, “Out on a Bad Date”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-12-14 ( – How programs screw up dates.

Louis Kessler, “Sort of a Date”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-12-04 ( – A discussion about dates in GEDCOM.

Tony Proctor, “Warm Fuzzy Dates”, Parallax View, 2015-01-29 ( – Discussion of fuzzy (uncertain, imprecise, etc) dates.

Tony Proctor, “Is the ISO Date Standard Bad?”, Parallax View, 2014-06-06 ( – Critique of the ISO 8601 date standard.

Tony Proctor, “A Calendar for Your Date — Part I”, Parallax View, 2015-07-12 ( Also: “A Calendar for Your Date — Part II”, Parallax View, 2015-07-19 ( – Tour through the various calendars, and the problems of accurate date determination, culminating in suggestions for a computer representation.

Tony Proctor, “Synchronised Dates”, Parallax View, 2015-08-04 ( – Discussion of the Julian-to-Gregorian conversion, and the generalised handling of dual dates.

##Entity Relationships##

Tony Proctor, “The Lineage Trap”, Parallax View ( – How the identification of generic “subject entities” helps with an approach accommodating micro-history.


Tony Proctor, “Eventful Genealogy”, Parallax View ( – How Events can become a major component in coordinating our data, using protracted and hierarchical event descriptions.

Tony Proctor, “Eventful Genealogy - Part II”, Parallax View ( – Follow-up presenting ‘relational constraints’ as a way to force Event ordering when dates are too fuzzy.

Louis Kessler, “Multiple Events and Unions in GEDCOM”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-03-24 ( – Problems handling multiple events.


Tony Proctor, “Digital Freedom”, Parallax View ( – Use of namespaces as a cornerstone in STEMMA’s extensible vocabularies.

Louis Kessler, “A Plethora of Extra GEDCOM Tags”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-11-21 ( – How allowing customization goes against data transferability.

##Family Units##

“Marriage”, Wikipedia ( – Concept variations around the world.

“Family”, Wikipedia ( – Concept variations around the world.

Daphne Lofquist, Terry Lugaila, Martin O’Connell, and Sarah Feliz, “2010 Census Briefs: Households and Families: 2010”, U.S. Census Bureau, April 2012 ( – Information about household relationships in US census.

Tamura Jones, “Family in Traditional Genealogy Software”, Modern Software Experience (

Tamura Jones, “Family in Scientific Genealogy”, Modern Software Experience (

Tony Proctor, “Revisiting the Family Group”, Parallax View ( – Follow-up to ‘Family Units’ that elevated the Group concept to a top-level entity for micro-history usage.

Tony Proctor, “Happy Families”, Parallax View ( – Important separation of the concepts of biological lineage, family units, and bonding ceremonies (such as marriage).

Louis Kessler, “Eliminating the Family”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2012-06-16 ( – Discussion of how to handle families.


Tony Proctor, “Rock Family Trees”, Parallax View ( – Demonstration of flexibility using Groups outside of genealogy.

##Name Handling##

“Names”, Citation Style Language (CSL) 1.0 ( – Deals with sorting of names involving name particles.

“Person name”, Wikipedia ( – General introduction to personal-name differences.

“ROCIC Law Enforcement Guide to International Names”, Public Intelligence ( – Legal treatment of cultural differences.

K. G. Saur, “National Usages for Entry in Catalogues”, IFLA Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Program ( – Enumeration of name structures, and examination of cataloguing issues.

“Personal names around the world”, W3C Internationalization ( – Examination of many cultural differences around the world.

Roger Darlington, “WHAT’S IN A NAME?” ( – Examination of many cultural differences around the world.

Tony Proctor, “The Game of the Name”, Parallax View ( – Scheme for generalised name handling for Person/Place/Group in globalised fashion

Tony Proctor, “One Name to Rule Them All”, Parallax View ( – Differentiation of actual identifications from preferred identifications, from evidential forms, and from report/chart titles.

Patrick McKenzie, “Falsehoods Programmers Believe About Names”, Kalzumeus, 2010-06-17 ( – List of common misconceptions about names.


Tony Proctor, “Semantic Tagging of Historical Data”, Parallax View ( – Use of semantic mark-up to link narrative reports to referenced entities.

Tony Proctor, “Structured Narrative”, STEMMA Project ( – worked example of semantic mark-up in STEMMA.

Louis Kessler, “Markup in GEDCOM”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-03-05 ( – Why presentational markup is bad and should be limited.


Tony Proctor, “A Place for Everything”, Parallax View ( – Differentiates the name of a place (or of a place hierarchy) from a full Place entity (or a chain of Place entities)

Tony Proctor, “Related Entities”, Parallax View ( – Non-hierarchical connections between Places.

Tony Proctor, “Place Names or Coordinates?”, Parallax View ( – Treatment of coordinates, either in local data or external ‘Place Authority’.

Louis Kessler, “The Place Record in GEDCOM”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-12-24 ( – The case for places to be a top-level record.

“Towards an international address standard”, ISO TC211 ( – Examination of issues for worldwide addresses.

“Guide to International Mailing Address Formats”, BitBoost Systems ( – List of addressing styles.

Michael Tandy, “Falsehoods programmers believe about addresses”,, 2013-05-29 ( – List of misconceptions about addresses.


Tony Proctor, “Is That a Fact?”, Parallax View ( – General discussion of STEMMA approach to named properties.

Tony Proctor, “The Role of the Role”, Parallax View ( – Presentation of the STEMMA approach to the ‘Role’ property.

Tony Proctor, “Time-dependent Attributes”, Parallax View ( – Scheme for handling time-dependent properties.


“QuickLesson 16: Speculation, Hypothesis, Interpretation & Proof“, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – Discussion of the genealogical usage of these terms

“QuickLesson 17: The Evidence Analysis Process Map“, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – Core elements of the research process.

“QuickLesson 13: Classes of Evidence—Direct, Indirect & Negative“, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – Categories of genealogical evidence.

“QuickLesson 10: Original Records, Image Copies, and Derivatives“, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – Different requirements for citing originals and derivatives.

“Sources, Information, Evidence”, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – Clarifies the terms used in QuickLesson 13.

Board for Certification of Genealogists. Genealogical Standards. Nashville and New York: Ancestry Imprint, Turner Publishing, 2014 – Identifies and describes the essential quality-control standards for genealogical research, analysis, reporting, and teaching. Has an excellent glossary. This is a significant update of the original Genealogical Standards Manual of 2000.

Jones, Thomas W., Dr. Mastering Genealogical Proof. Arlington, Va.: National Genealogical Society, 2013 – Covers principles, processes, terminology, and standards for developing “information” into “proof” that will withstand the test of time. It has an excellent glossary.

Tony Proctor, “You’re Probably Right”, Parallax View ( – Examination of the use of probability, and especially of Bayesian probabilities.

H. B. Newcombe, J. M. Kennedy, S. J. Axford, and A. P. James, “Automatic Linkage of Vital Records”, Science, Vol. 130, No. 3381 (16 October 1959): 954–959; online image ( : accessed 2014-10-05) – Early work related to persona, although not by that name.

Howard B. Newcombe, “Record Linking: The Design of Efficient Systems for Linking Records into Individual Family Histories”, American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 19, No. 3, Part I (May 1967): 13–37; online image ( : accessed 2014-10-05) – Early work related to persona, although not by that name.

Tony Proctor, “Genealogical Persona Non Grata”, Parallax View ( – Discussion of personae, and relationship to STEMMA model.

Tony Proctor, “Evidence and Where to Stick It”, Parallax View ( – Discussion of where sources and attachments are placed in our data, and relevance of Events.

Tony Proctor, “Proof of the Pudding”, Parallax View ( – Examination of what constitutes ‘proof’, and the different usage of various terms.

Tony Proctor, “Source Mining”, Parallax View ( – General discussion of assimilating source information as a bottom-up approach to using that information in both chronological narrative, conclusions, and proof arguments.


Tony Proctor, “No Sex Please, We’re Genealogists!”, Parallax View ( – General discussion of sex, gender, and lifestyle choices.


Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace 2nd ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2009 – Fundamentals of analysing evidence and citing sources, including samples for many source types.

Jones, Thomas W. Mastering Genealogical Proof. NGS, 2013 – Using evidence to reconstruct relationships and lives. Detailed breakdown of citations, including multi-layered ones.

Tony Proctor, “Cite Seeing”, Parallax View ( – Scheme accommodating layered citations, discursive notes, annotation, analytic citation notes, and multiple sources per citation.

Tony Proctor, “Citations for Online Trees”, Parallax View ( – Examination of who needs full scholarly citations, and who needs electronic bookmarks.

“QuickLesson 19: Layered Citations Work Like Layered Clothing“, Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage ( – In-depth description of ‘layered citations’.

Tamura Jones, “Genealogy Citation Standard”, Modern Software Experience ( – GEDCOM sources model.

Louis Kessler, “Standardizing Sources and Citation Templates”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2014-08-27 ( – This was the paper submitted to FHISO as CFPS 114 but also contains user comments and discussion.

Louis Kessler, “How many sources/citations is too many?”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-12-28 ( – Discusses if sources should be included once per person, or with each event.

Louis Kessler, “Source Driven Genealogy”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2013-02-24 ( – Requirements in the organization of source data.

Louis Kessler, “Evidence and Conclusion Modelling in Behold”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2011-11-12 ( – Emphasizes the simple idea of connecting the conclusions directly to the sources.

Tony Proctor, “Hierarchical Sources”, Parallax View ( – General discussion of an archival approach to sources, and how that can be used for our own micro-archive collections.

Tony Proctor, “Anatomy of a Source”, Parallax View ( – Examination of the fundamental requirements of a data model for sources and citations, together with a look at how STEMMA and GEDCOM-X relate to them.

##Standards (Discussion)##

Tony Proctor, “Bootstrapping a Data Standard”, Parallax View ( – Opinions on how to proceed when legacy data and the future pull in opposite directions.

Tony Proctor, “Is the ISO Date Standard Bad?”, Parallax View ( – Discussion of failings of the ISO date standard.

Tony Proctor, “Supporting a Proof Standard”, Parallax View ( – Discussion of whether-to and how-to support a mechanism supporting a proof standard.

Tony Proctor, “Where are the Standards for Historical Data?”, Parallax View ( – Examination of standards applicable to history rather than technology.

##Standards (Specific)##

“ISO 639”, Wikipedia ( – Codes for the representation of modern-day languages and language groups.

“ISO 6709”, Wikipedia ( – Portable representation for (non-indexed) coordinate pairs, and implicitly for ordered lists ( for polygons).

“ISO 8601”, Wikipedia (, – Representation of dates and times from Gregorian calendar.

“ISO 3166”, Wikipedia ( – Codes for the names of modern-day countries and dependent territories.

“ISO/IEC 10646” (Unicode), Wikipedia ( – Global character/symbol standard, including encoding such as UTF-8.

ISO 16684-1:2012 (aka Extensible Metadata Platform, XMP), Adobe ( – Open XML/RDF-based standard for tagging media files with rich metadata, and which can be extended to serialize custom metadata types.

“ISO 19160”, ISO TC211 ( – Tentative standard for worldwide addresses.

“International Classification for Standards (ICS)”, Wikipedia ( – Classification of technical standards.

“Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS)”, Wikipedia ( – Geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of modern-day countries, developed and regulated by the European Union.

TEI: Text Encoding Initiative ( – Scheme for mark-up (incl. semantic and presentational) of text documents.

“E.123”, Wikipedia ( – Standard for representation of contact details.

“E.164”, Wikipedia ( – Standard for representation of worldwide telephone numbers.

“Ordnance survey National Grid”, Wikipedia ( – Coordinate system used widely in UK.

“json-ld”, w3c ( – JSON for Linking Data.

“PROV-N: The Provenance Notation”, W3C ( – Part of the PROV family of documenents, describes a “human-readable” provenance notation.

“Guidelines for Handling Image Metadata”, Metadata Working Group ( – Describes how to use existing standards such as Exif, IPTC, and XMP.

“ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 (R2010)”, NISO ( – Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies.

“Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels”, IETF ( – Recommended semantics for words such as “must”, “must not”, “required”, “shall” in IETF ‘Request For Comments’ documents.

Louis Kessler, “Whither GEDCOM X?”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2012-06-07 ( – What was right and wrong with GEDCOM X.

Louis Kessler, “My Feedback to GEDCOM X”, Louis Kessler’s Behold Blog, 2012-03-29 ( – Deficiencies, file format, and feedback about GEDCOM.

“Unicode Technical Standard #35: Unicode Locale Data Markup Language (LDML)”, Unicode Technical Reports ( – XML format (vocabulary) for the exchange of structured locale data. This format is used in the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR).

“Metadata Standards”, Wikipedia ( – List of current metadata standards.

“Putting Things in Order: a Directory of Metadata Schemas and Related Standards”, JISC Digital Media ( – List of formal metadata schemas and related standards giving brief descriptions and links to further information.


“Dat”, Max Ogden ( – Dat is an open source project that is intended to provide a streaming interface between every file format anddata storage backend.

“Data Protocols”, Open Knowledge Foundation Labs ( – Projects include Data Packages, JSON Table Schema, and other proposals for self-documenting bundles of open data.

“CSV Schema 1.0”, UK National Archives ( – Format/language for transferring and validating historical data in CSV.

Dan Brickley & Libby Miller, “FOAF Vocabulary Specification 0.99” ( – Vocabulary for describing people, originally designed for social networking sites, but now the de facto standard for describing people on the semantic web.

Ian Davis & David Galbraith, “BIO: A vocabulary for biographical information” ( – Vocabulary for biographical events built on top of FOAF.

Ian Davis & Eric Vitiello Jn, “RELATIONSHIP: A vocabulary for describing relationships between people” ( – Vocabulary for relationships (including genealogical ones) built on top of FOAF.

Tom Heath & Christian Bizer, “Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space” (Morgan & Claypool, 2011), also online – a popular guide to the various linked data technologies and vocabularies.

“RDF 1.1 Primer”, World Wide Web Consortium ( – A technical introduction to RDF emphasising the newer non-XML serialisations.


Bell, Mary McCampbell. “Transcripts and Abstracts”. Chapter 16 in E. S. Mills et al., eds. Professional Genealogy: A Manual for Researchers, Writers, Editors, Lecturers, and Librarians. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2001. Pages 291–326 – Covers the standards and the processes for creating various kinds of derivatives, with step-by-step examples.

“Editorial Method for Journals, Volume 1”, The Joseph Smith Papers ( – Useful list of terms, concepts, and conventions for transcription.

Mary-Jo Kline and Susan Holbrook Perdue, A Guide to Documentary Editing, 3d edition ( – A complete guide, but especially ch.5 “The Conventions of Textual Treatment” (

Stefanie Dipper and Martin Schnurrenberger, OTTO: A Tool for Diplomatic Transcription of Historical Texts ( – Transcription tool designed for diplomatic transcription of historical language data. Mainly aimed at linguists but covers a lot of detail.

Tony Proctor, “Handling Transcriptions”, Parallax View ( – Scheme for incorporating transcriptions (or translations, extracts, abstracts) into our data, and relationship to citations and media attachment (e.g. images, scans).